evolving through distinct phases of randomness, growth, consolidation, and collapse.exist in punctuated equilibrium, repeatedly
(Phase 1) Random: The system is unstructured. Random events occur without particularly changing the structure.
(Phase 2) Growth: An innovation causes a major phase transition within the structure of the system. The innovation catalyzes other innovations in a positive.
(Phase 3) Consolidation: Growth rates saturate. The ecosystem consolidates into a highly organized network, optimized for efficiency, as each agent seeks to eke out as much as it can from its position in the . Hubs ( ) appear at critical points.
(Phase 4) Collapse: A random shock, or new innovation demolishes one of the, causing cascade failure within the highly structured network. The ecosystem collapses into a random structure.
(Repeat): The system begins a slow crawl back up the evolutionary ladder toward a new metastable state.
Insights from the work of Sanjay Jain, Sandeep Krishna: