patterns that recur in :
- Niche and hierarchy
Diversity: an ecology is an economy made up of many currencies. Different species have different goals, and those goals interlock in nonlinear ways.
Recirculation: energy in the system is recycled and spent over and over again. Plants absorb sunlight, animals eat plants, animals fertalize plants. Over time, the ecology evolves complex recirculation webs.
Niche and hierarchy: Like agents can evolve into specialists, it increases the total efficiency and carrying capacity of the ecosystem. Specialization facilitates recirculation. Hierarchies of specialists emerge, and resources flow from specialist to specialist, as in an assembly line., when generalist
Coevolution: several relational tropes continually recur between specialists. Predator-prey, mutialism, commensalism, parasitism.
(Insights from, MIT Press).