Energy Transitions

Smil's deeply researched assessment of what it will take for civilization to transition to renewable energy. We've transitioned from one energy source to another several times before: people to animal, animal to wood, wood to coal, coal to oil.

Here's the tricky part: every transition has been a step up in energy density. Oil to Renewables will be our first step down. Smil looks to natural gas as a means to make up the difference.